Simultaneous and machine translation


Up to the end of the twentieth at the international congresses, conferences and meetings consecutive translation was practiced: the speech of orator was translated in other working languages after its performance. “Depending on the amount of working languages accepted at the assembly of the delegates, each performance was consistently repeated from a tribune several times, that resulted a large loss of time. Only at the end of the 20th incidentally was practiced translation of speeches simultaneously with their listening, which has received its name of simultaneous translation. “It is often argued that the first War Crimes trial (Nuremberg Trial) could not have possible simultaneous interpretation. The highlights of the early postwar period included the active participation of Soviet interpreters in the Nuremberg Trial and the Tokyo Trial of major Japanese war criminals. The real baptism of fire for a large group of Russian conference interpreters was the International Economic Conference held in Moscow in 1952. Since the 19th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, simultaneous translation has been more widely used on such occasions. The technique and hardware of simultaneous interpretation, at first somewhat crude and primitive, were gradually upgraded approaching international standards including a speaker’s microphone, system of posting, headphones and microphones of the interpreters (mounted in special cabins) and headphones for the participants”. Each participant, being connected to the appropriate translation cabin, received an opportunity to listen to translation of speech simultaneously with the performance. The simultaneous translation gave significant economy of time, especially on the international meetings, where several working languages were used. Simultaneous translation gradually pressed consecutive translation and up to the present time became the basic kind of translation at all multilateral international forums. Being the top of the interpreting mastery, it drew my interest towards writing the project on this topic. Besides, as it appeared to be, there is not so much written about exact advices of interpreters or especially for teaching simultaneous translation. Besides, even the best methodology will not create a super-professional interpreter, but using these techniques it is possible to upgrade the level of interpretation skills. The difficulty is that there are only theoretical works concerning this topic and not so many practical advices and exercises for the future interpreters training. Simultaneous translation is one of the most complicated kinds of translation. The main feature of simultaneous translation consists of parallel perception of speech of the orator and giving out the speech in language of translation. This feature of simultaneous translation defines other features of this kind and first of all the rigid limit of time: the interpreter has only the period of pronouncing the speech by the speaker for translation. This time is twice less than what the interpreter has at consecutive translation, and in 20-30 times less, than at written text translation of the same speech. The interpreter has not only less time for translation, but also is imposed to the rate of translation, which should correspond to the rate of pronouncing the speech. Besides simultaneous translation has such special feature as segmental character: the interpreter translates the text in segments in process of their receipt, whereas during consecutive translation (as well as at written translation of written materials) the interpreter listens to the whole text. These features make simultaneous translation very difficult for learning. To simultaneous translation, perhaps, the traditional formula is almost not applied: in order to translation one needs to know two languages and subject of conversation. It is known, that not every man freely speaking foreign language is capable to take possession translation. First, preparation of the oral interpreters included mass ideological preparation, which completely brought to nothing a professional etiquette of the oral interpreter. Ideological sense of translation in the Soviet spirit was put much above its accuracy. Some decent interpreters tried to avoid it. It is where the opinion about harm of training came from. Second, the thematic principle was frequently practiced in training the interpreters (and is practiced still now). This principle is seen in narrow specialization of the training books: “The Textbook of military translation”, “Translation of the chemical texts”. The thematic orientation of training is on the decline, not only because it educates the interpreters with a narrow professional outlook; its main disadvantage consists of mixing different things – knowledge on a theme and professional skills. In other words, knowledge about what to be spoken in the text and knowledge of what to be done with the text. And finally, the third feature, which is, perhaps, most essential for the Russian history of translation. Traditionally, to tell the truth, interpreters were considered as the interpreters of fiction. The theorists of translation focused their attention on fiction as deserving primary attention. Consequently, frequent answer to a question, whether it is possible to learn translation, is understood only in application to fiction. And the answer at once caused difficulties. The art of translation requires such huge volume of background erudition, additional knowledge and performance of complex texture of translation tasks that frequently the thesis about creativeness is put forward, where reigns inspiration. The skill of translating fiction is a specific skill, and though the possession of it is impossible without some rules working for translation of any text, but nevertheless it does not guarantee to the interpreter the skill to translate non-fiction. It is necessary to tell, that intuition and inspiration, which helps to feel and to transfer complex and fine stylistics, individual style and much of other things in translation, prevents the interpreter to take the higher level of wider generalizations, and he would not be able to distribute the personal experience to work with the non-fiction texts, what simply means that the interpreter of fiction frequently, simply speaking, is not able to translate the non-fiction. And nevertheless, definitely: it is possible to learn! The experience of many translation schools of the world shows it. Training there is constructed differently, but always contains a constant set of obligatory components and gives the result. And common sense tells us that to learn is not only possible, but also necessary: it is impossible in the modern world to start up development of this important trade without paying attention. It harms the quality of translation production and reduces prestige of a profession. Machine translation (MT) is a procedure whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and produces a target text without further human intervention. In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing. An exception to that rule might be, e.g., the translation of technical specifications (strings of technical terms and adjectives), using a dictionary-based machine-translation system. To date, machine translation–a major goal of natural-language processing–has met with limited success. A November 6,2007, example illustrates the hazards of uncritical reliance on machine translation. Machine translation has been brought to a large public by tools available on the Internet, Such as Yahoo!’s Babel Fish, Babylon, and StarDict. This tools produce a “gisting translation” – a rough translation that, with luck, “gives the gist” of the source text. With proper terminology work, with preparation of the source text for machine translation (pre-editing), and with re-working of the machine translation by a professional human translator (post-editing), commercial machine-translation tools can produce useful results, especially if the machine-translation system is integrated with a translation – memory or globalization – management system. In regard to texts (e.g., weather reports) with limited ranges of vocabulary and simple sentence structure, machine translation can deliver results that do not require much human intervention to be useful. Also, the use of a controlled language, combined with a machine-translation tool, will typically generate largely comprehensible translations. Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation ignores the fact that communication in human language is context – embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability. It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error. Therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human. The late Claude Piron wrote that machine translation, at its best, automates the easier part of a translator’s job; the harder and more time-consuming part usually involves doing extensive research to resolve ambiguities in the source text, which the grammatical and lexical exigencies of the target language require to be resolved. Such research is a necessary prelude to the pre-editing necessary in order to provide input for machine-translation software such that the output will not be meaningless. The lessons of machine translations’s first 50 years aren’t the kind we are used to hearing from our best and brightest machines: Make peace with stubborn limitations, cut the hype, think in the scale of decades of gradual evolution, forget about breakthoughs. In our laptops, we already have memory capacity and processing apeed that would have been barely imaginable in the age of the tube-driven mainframes, but machine translation historian John Hutchins believes that even “infinite computer power is not a solution”. What is needed, he says, is deeper insight into the processes of language and cognition. “there is no such thing as `perfect’ translation”, he adds. “There are only translations more or less suitable or successful for specific purposes and contexts”.



Development of the theory of translation in the twentieth century


Modern Western Schools of translation theory and translationAfter World War II, science and technology, linguistics and translation undertakings flourish, machine translation is quietly rising. People’s views on translation also will be changed. Translation is not only an art or skill, but also a science, and literature and art, sociology, psychology, information theory and the theory NC, and other related disciplines but their own systems science. Translation theory studies, is no longer confined to philosophers, writers and translators, language and translation to become an expert in the study of systems of the serious issue. Therefore, the translation of Western theory further development. Modern Western translation theory in the development of two major characteristics: (1) theoretical research into linguistics areas, the modern linguistics and the impact of information theory, and thus the obvious color of linguistics, and the traditional theory of literary translation in stark contrast; (2) In the past theorists behind closed doors, not contact with the situation be broken. On the theorists through, magazines, essays, etc., fully express their views. In addition, as means of transportation, publishing industry and the progress of the emergence of international academic organizations, countries translation theorists keep close contacts between the academic exchanges have been strengthened. Modern Western translation theory there are four main schools: Prague faction, London faction, the United States sent structure and Communication Theory camp. The founder of the School for Mahi Hughes (Vilem Mathesius), the Kuwaiti and Iraqi Telubeishi (Nikolay S. Trubetskoy) and Accor may Dobson (Roman Jakobson). AGB could be key members of Dobson, Levy, Victoria, such as the translation of important theorist. The school’s main arguments: (1) must be taken into account language translation of a variety of functions, including cognitive function, the expression of features and tools, such as functional (2) must attach importance to language translation of comparison, including the semantics, grammar, voice, language, style as well as literary genre comparisons. Prague School of the most influential theorists are Luomanya can translate Dobson. He origin Russia, the Czech Republic after resettlement; moved to the United States during World War II, joining American. As one of the founders of the school, his main contribution to the theory of translation reflected in the “On the translation of Linguistics” (On Linguistic Aspects of Translation) are. Articles from the perspective of linguistics, translation of the importance of the relationship between language and translation, as well as the existing problems are brilliant expositions. Since 1959 after the publication of this article has been Western theoretical circles as a translation of the classic. Accor Dobson can be discussed five major points: (1) Translation divided into three categories: language, translation (intralingual translation), the Inter-translation (interlingual translation), and at the occasion of translation (intersemiotic translation). Within the so-called language translation, refers to the same language used in some language other symbols to explain the language symbols, which are usually “change that” (rewording). The so-called inter-language translation refers to two languages in one language that is the sign to explain the symbols in another language, that is, the translation of the strict sense. At the occasion of the so-called translation, refers to non-verbal symbol system explained linguistic symbols, or using symbols to explain non-verbal language symbols, such as the Qiyu words or gestures become. (2) Meaning depends on the understanding of translation. He said that in language learning and linguistic understanding of the process of translation played a decisive role. (3) Accurate information on the translation symmetry. Translation is involved in two different languages on the website, and other information. (4) All languages have the same ability. If the language in vocabulary insufficient, it will be adopted by the word coinage or interpretation of the language, and other methods for processing. (5) Translation Grammar area is the most complex issue. This is the presence of state, and a few, such as changes in the form of the language syntax, especially complex. United Kingdom London School is a school with the language, language that is the significance of the use of language from the social environment (the social context of situation) decision. In the field of translation studies, translation and the original wording of the same depends on whether they used the same language environment. London School of the founder of the Fox (JR Firth). Two articles focus reflects the translation of theory, a “Linguistics and Translation” (Linguistics and Translation) and the other one as “linguistic analysis and translation” (Linguistic Analysis and Translation). Falls focused on the following three areas: (1) language analysis is the basis of translation (2) translation does not mean completely perfect translation; (3) in any two languages in the translation, a certain sense of language means of expression, such as it is impossible to totally another language. Catford (John Catford) is the school system in comparison to the theory of translation scholars. Teaches at the University of Edinburgh Catford 1965 published “translation Linguistic Theory” (A Linguistic Theory of Translation) a book for translation theory developing new channels, caused a huge reaction. Catford theory called “descriptive” of translation theory. He translated from the nature, type, and so on, conversion, such as limits explain “what is the translation of the” The central issue. (1) The nature of translation. Translation is “a language of the (former) that the text materials into another language (target language), such as the text of the material.” (2) Translation category. On its extent, can be divided into “translation of the full text of” (full translation) and “partially translated” (partial translation); level on the terms of their language, can be divided into “complete translation” (total translation) and “limited Translation” ( restricted translation); on the registration of language structure, can be divided into “restricted class” of translation and the “unlimited class” translation, namely the traditional sense, “a verbatim translation” and the “translation” and “literal translation” between the two between. (3) The translation of the problems. On the one hand, and so is a translation of the experience as the basis to the phenomenon is based on a comparison of the two languages and discovered the other hand, such as the translation of a text and asked to see whether the same or part of the same substantive characteristics. (4) Translation conversion refers to the original form of a deviation from the corresponding asked. Translation conversion level conversion and are divided into areas of conversion, which conversion can be divided into areas of structural transformation, parts of speech conversion, unit conversion and four within the system conversion. (5) Translation of the limits is that Untranslatability issues. There are two types of translation in the untranslatability. First, the language of Untranslatability phenomenon Puns, superoxide Italy grammatical structure; Second, the cultural untranslatability is due to the different social customs, different era background, and other non-language factors. Structure of the United States is the language school representative cloth dragon Rumsfeld. He made an act of semantic analysis, that means that the stimulus and response between the existence of language relations. In the 1950s, cloth-Rumsfeld Chomsky’s theory of the transformation of production replaced by the theory. Jiaozhi theory has three viewpoints: (1) human language ability is innate; (2) Language is unencumbered by the rules; (3) surface structure and language, including deep structure. The theory of translation studies in the major impact on the surface structure and its deep structure on. Mainly lies in the different languages of the respective different surface structures, and deep structure is a common feature. Linguistic theory in the above under the influence, creating Wozhelin (CF Voegelin), Bo Ling grid (D. Bolinger), Katz (JJ Katz), Kuien (WV Quine) and Nida (EU Nida), represented Translation Theory sector of the United States of the school structure, and to Nida’s most outstanding. Nida Communication is the representative of translation theory. His translation theory can be summarized as the following six aspects: (1) the theoretical principles. All languages have the same ability, and the primary task is to translate that readers can be asked at a glance. (2) The nature of translation. According to Nida’s the definition of “so-called translation, refers to the style from the semantic (style) in the target language using the most natural reproduction of the original language, such as the phrase information.” Three of them are the key: First, “in accord with the natural,” I can not have translation cavity; second is the “natural” choice on the basis of the closest to the original meaning and asked the third is a “reciprocal”, this is the core. Therefore, the translation must meet four criteria: (a) to express (b) and vivid; (c) natural language English and (d) similar to the reader responses. (3) Translation function. From the social linguistics and language communication function standpoint, Nida that must be translated for readers service targets. (4) The correct translation. Translation: correct depends on to what extent the readers can understand correctly asked. (5) Semantic analysis. One of the important process of translation of the original is a semantic analysis. Semantics can be divided into three types: grammatical meaning, the meaning and significance of connotations. (6) The procedures and methods of translation. In his view, the entire translation process is divided into four steps: analysis, interpretation, Reorganization (language translation by the rules of re-organization asked) and examined. Since the 1980s, the translation of theory Nida a larger change. The main new viewpoints: (1) Translation is not science, but technology; (2) Translation can be born; (3) translation is not only a language communicative activities, but also a symbol of social interaction (sociosemiotic interaction) activities. In addition, there are more representative of Germany’s Leipzig School and the former Soviet Union, such as schools. In short, the 20th century theory of the development of the West’s largest translation feature is included in translation studies linguistics, comparative linguistics and applied linguistics and semantics, and other established intrinsically linked. Although the western translation theory has achieved tremendous successes, but they are in the tradition of succession on the basis of, and did not form a complete, universal theoretical system.

History of theory and practice of translation.


Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. The distinction that had been drawn by the ancient Greeks between “metaphrase” (“literal” translation) and “paraphrase” would be adopted by the English poet and translator John Dryden (1631-1700), who represented translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, “counterparts,” or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When [words] appear… literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since… what is beautiful in one [language] is often barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author’s words: ’tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of “imitation,” i.e. of adapted translation: “When a painter copies from the life… he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments…” This general formulation of the central concept of translation — equivalence — is probably as adequate as any that has been proposed ever since Cicero and Horace, in first-century-BCE Rome, famously and literally cautioned against translating “word for word” (“verbum pro verbo”). Despite occasional theoretical diversities, the actual practice of translators has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents — “literal” where possible, paraphrastic where necessary — for the original meaning and other crucial “values” (e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, and hence word order — when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure. The grammatical differences between “fixed-word-order” languages(e.g., English, French, German) and “free-word-order” languages (e.g., Greek, Latin, Polish, Russian) have been no impediment in this regard. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed them, thereby enriching the target language. Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are “untranslatable” among the modern European languages.In general, the greater the contact and exchange that has existed between two languages, or between both and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating between them. However, due to shifts in “ecological niches” of words, a common etymology is sometimes misleading as a guide to current meaning in one or the other language. The English “actual,” for example, should not be confused with the cognate French “actuel” (meaning “present,” “current”) or the Polish “aktualny” (“present,” “current”).The translator’s role as a bridge for “carrying across” values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, Roman adapter of Greek comedies, in the second century BCE. The translator’s role is, however, by no means a passive and mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. The main ground seems to be the concept of parallel creation found in critics as early as Cicero. Dryden observed that “Translation is a type of drawing after life…” Comparison of the translator with a musician or actor goes back at least to Samuel Johnson’s remark about Alexander Pope playing Homer on a flageolet, while Homer himself used a bassoon.If translation be an art, it is no easy one. In the 13th century, Roger Bacon wrote that if a translation is to be true, the translator must know both languages, as well as the science that he is to translate; and finding that few translators did, he wanted to do away with translation and translators altogether.The first European to assume that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language may have been Martin Luther, translator of the Bible into German. According to L.G. Kelly, since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, “it has been axiomatic” that one works only toward his own language.Compounding these demands upon the translator is the fact that not even the most complete dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translation. Alexander Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Translation (1790), emphasized that assiduous reading is a more comprehensive guide to a language than are dictionaries. The same point, but also including listening to the spoken language, had earlier been made in 1783 by Onufry Andrzej Kopczyсski, member of Poland’s Society for Elementary Books, who was called “the last Latin poet.” The special role of the translator in society was well described in an essay, published posthumously in 1803, by Ignacy Krasicki – “Poland’s La Fontaine”, Primate of Poland, poet, encyclopedist, author of the first Polish novel, and translator from French and Greek: Translation… is in fact an art both estimable and very difficult, and therefore is not the labor and portion of common minds; It should be practiced by those who are themselves capable of being actors, when they see greater use in translating the works of others than in their own works, and hold higher than their own glory the service that they render to their country.

Appearance of Translation/Interpretation


Many years ago, according to the Bible, all people living on the Earth spoke the same language. As they had had a great desire to reach the God, they began building a very high tower to be closer to him. The God decided to punish them and one morning when they woke up they were speaking the different languages and could not understand each other. Since that very time people have been needing interpreters. Functionally, an interpreter is a person who converts a source language to a target language. The interpreter’s function is conveying every semantic element (tone and register) and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to the target-language listeners. Language interpreting or interpretation is the intellectual activity of facilitating oral and sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between two or more users of different languages. Functionally, interpreting and interpretation are the descriptive words for the activity. In professional practice interpreting denotes the act of facilitating communication from one language form into its equivalent, or approximate equivalent, in another language form. Interpretation denotes the actual product of this work, that is, the message as thus rendered into speech, sign language, writing, non-manual signals, or other language form. This important distinction is observed to avoid confusion. Peter Trent, a senator from Westmont, Canada was sure that: “To think that you can be an interpreter only because you know two languages is the same to think that you can play the piano only because you have two hands”. Each interpreter must know foreign languages very well and of course he must know theory of translation, because it is impossible to translate perfectly without knowing the main basic aspects of the theory of translations. The theme of this work has been chosen because the theory of translation is of great importance in my future life. It has a very interesting history, and was widely developed in the XX century. This century is often called a century of great discoveries, development and progress. Business relations among people, different kinds of communications lead to intensive development of the theory of translation in the XX century. This course paper’s aims are to show the history of interpreting, establishing of the theory of translation and its development in the last century. The course paper consists of introduction, two chapters, conclusion and bibliography. In the first chapter devoted to the history of interpreting and establishing of the theory of translation the attention is paid to the definition of the terms “translation” and “interpreting”. It is shown that the history of translation has a very long way, beginning from the ancient times. A special attention is paid to the history of theory. In the second chapter which is dedicated to the development of the theory of translation in the twentieth century attention is paid to Modern western Schools of translation and difference among them is shown. In this chapter the difference between simultaneous and consecutive translation is shown and types of interpreting are stated.


ImageNowadays, learning languages is very important in order to succeed personal and professionally.

It does not matter if you were bad at languages at school, because everybody is able to learn a new language if they do it the right way and put effort into it.

If you really want to speak, read and write any language fluently, there are two things that you will really need:

– Willingness to work: You have to want to learn the language, not just wish it, because you will have to study on your own for some months and everything will depend on you. For example, a speaker of a romance language (French, Italian, Spanish,etc.) can learn another romance language in less than 200 hours. However, he has to work during these hours, because if he is not persistent, he will probably stop after 30 hours, then go back, then stop again and never finish.

– An intelligent method: Many people study a language for years and cannot order a pizza in this language. If you think I exaggerate, ask someone who studied a language at school. So, the second most important thing is to work intelligently, so you don’t waste your time and your energy.

Before starting your learning adventure, I would like to introduce you the story of a person, who, from my point of view, is a genius. I think every person passionate about languages should take him as a reference:

Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti (1774-1849) was an Italian Cardinal and famed linguist. Mezzofanti was well known for being a hyperpoliglot who fluently spoke 38 languages. He never left Italy; however, he managed to learn how to speak every language without an accent. People from all over the world went to Italy to challenge him in their native languages. They all reported their amazement at this man’s fluency. The study of Mezzofanti is a 500 pages book by Charles William Russell published in 1863.

Here I attach a list of the languages he could speak fluently. Although, he could understand, read and write a lot more languages and dialects.

1. Biblical Hebrew 14. Latin 27. Czech
2. Rabbinical Hebrew 15. Italian 28. Magyar
3. Arabic 16. Spanish 29. Chinese
4. Chaldean 17. Portuguese 30. Syriac
5. Coptic 18. French 31. Ge’ez
6. Ancient Armenian 19. German 32. Amharic
7. Modern Armenian 20. Swedish 33. Hindustani
8. Persian 21. Danish 34.Gujarati
9. Turkish 22. Dutch 35. Basque
10. Albanian 23. English 36. Wallanchian
11. Maltese 24. Illyrian 37. Californian
12. Ancient Greek 25. Russian 38. Algonquin
13. Modern Greek 26. Polish  

I hope you feel encouraged after this story, so you can start now with your language learning adventure. This blog will help you through the whole learning process, providing you with tips, different methods, tools, etc.

What kind of personal traits do you need to be a conference interpreter?


These are some of the key skills that interpreters make use of at one time or another:

  • a polished command of their own native language over a range of registers and domains
  • a complete mastery of their non-native languages
  • a familiarity with the cultures in the countries where their working languages are spoken
  • a commitment to helping others communicate
  • an interest in and understanding of current affairs, plus an insatiable curiosity
  • world experience away from home and school and a broad general education
  • good training (and usually at least an undergraduate university degree)
  • the ability to concentrate and focus as a discussion unfolds
  • a pleasant speaking voice
  • a friendly, collegial attitude
  • calm nerves, tact, judgment and a sense of humor
  • a willingness to adhere to rules of conduct